Scientific name: Citrus paradisi
Plant description: The grapefruit is a tree, belonging to the Rutaceae or peaches family. It is a hybrid, probably produced spontaneously between the pomelo (Citrus maxima) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) in the plantations of the Caribbean Sea around the 17th century.
The grapefruit is an evergreen tree, 5 to 6 m high, with a rounded crown, sparse branches and a broad trunk; the young branches present short and flexible spines in the leaf axils.
The leaves are alternate, ovate and toothed, stand out for their intense greenness and for the fragrant white or purple flowers that they produce in the form of solitary clusters.
The fruit is globose and can measure up to 15 centimeters in diameter. The shell that covers it is thick, rough and fleshy, with an unmistakable aroma. Internally it has red or pink segments, very provocative. Its pulp is juicy, contains few seeds and its flavor can be sweet or bitter, depending on the variety.
Cultivation: It can be reproduced by seed but it has drawbacks, so it is more recommended directly by grafting from gusset to bud during the month of March, giving very good holdings.
It can easily be grafted onto the base of another citrus fruit such as orange. The success of the cultivation will depend to a large extent on the choice of rootstock, which must adapt in good shape to each type of soil.
The best time for sowing is in the fall, until early winter.
Grapefruit does very well in hot climates. It grows faster in areas close to the tropics where it matures in seven months with a thicker shell and enhanced acidity.
Grapefruit is one of the citrus plants that has a wide range of soils where it can be sown, one of the preferred soils being slightly acidic and sandy, also in soils mixed with limestone, whose compounds have a high level of alkaline content, so that even in clay Grapefruit can be grown.
There are many varieties of grapefruit, with Marsh being the most common.
Grapefruit has countless medicinal contributions. It is proven to prevent cardiovascular disease, strengthens the immune system, prevents infections and colds, improves digestion, accelerates fat metabolism and cleanses the liver.
Its composition includes carotenoids or precursors of vitamin A and pectin, which controls cholesterol, protects arteries, favors the intestinal tract and protects against cancer.
It also has flavonoids that thin the blood and act as antioxidants, and limonoids that have a powerful anti-cancer action.
Grapefruit activates circulation, provides elasticity to the walls of the arteries, reduces varicose veins, fights anemia and reduces ailments caused by arthritis, gout and other rheumatic processes.
In addition to this, grapefruit attacks allergic conditions and gum conditions. In addition, it prolongs the health of the eyes, firms the skin and heals the inflammation of the prostate.
Plagues and diseases: Grapefruits are one of the most common hosts for fruit flies like A. suspensa.
They are susceptible to Tristeza disease and Phytophthora spp.
Phytophthora gummosis is characterized by a dry, cracked bark.
Psorosis causes cracks and flaking in the upper part of the tree.
AgroalimentaciÃ<sup>3n - El Pomelo: Cultivo y Manejo del Pomelo. 1Âa Parte.</i> (n.d.). Infoagro. Retrieved September 1, 2020, from https://infoagro.com/citricos/pomelo.htm
colaboradores de Wikipedia. (2020, August 7). Citrus × paradisi. Wikipedia, La Enciclopedia Libre. https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citrus_%C3%97_paradisi
Mendoza, Y. (2018, October 31). Cómo Cultivar Toronjas En Un Paso A Paso Sin Complicaciones. Agronomia. https://deagronomia.com/cultivos/como-cultivar-toronjas/
(2016, October 10). Toronja. Flores. https://www.flores.ninja/toronja/
Wikipedia contributors. (2020, August 4). Grapefruit. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grapefruit
En español: Toronja